What Were The Conditions Of Gandhi Irwin Agreement

The Muslim leaders present at the conference were Muhammad Ali, Agha Khan, Fazlul Haq and Jinnah. The result of the third roundtable conference was the Government`s White Paper. On the basis of this document, the Government of India Act 1935 was to be adopted. 1-march 5, 1931 Mahatma Gandhi signed a pact with Lord Irwin. Many British officials in India and Britain were outraged by the idea of a pact with a party whose stated aim was to destroy the British Raj. Winston Churchill publicly expressed his disgust “… in the diabolical and humiliating spectacle of this former lawyer of the Inner Temple, who is now seditious fakir and climbs half-naked the steps of the palace of the Vice-King to negotiate and parlier on an equal footing with the representative of the emperor. Gandhi Irwin`s pact was named after a political agreement reached on 5 March 1931 by Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin, then viceroy of India. The viceroy, Lord Irwin, was leading the most severe repression that Indian nationalism has ever known, but did not appreciate the role. The Indian public service in the United Kingdom and the business community have spoken out in favour of even tougher measures.

But Ramsay MacDonald, the British Prime Minister, and William Benn, Her Majesty`s chief foreign minister for India, were concerned about peace if they could secure it without weakening the position of the Labour government in Whitehall. They wanted to pass the Round Table Conference and knew that this body could not carry much weight without the presence of Gandhi and Congress. In January 1931, at the closing meeting of the Round Table Conference, Ramsay MacDonald went so far as to express the hope that Congress would be represented at the next session. The Viceroy took the notice and immediately ordered the unconditional release of Gandhi and all members of the Congress Working Committee. Gandhi responded to this gesture by agreeing to meet the viceroy. On January 25, 1931, Gandhi and all other members of the Congressional Working Committee (CWC) were released from prison unconditionally. The CWC authorized Gandhi to enter into talks with Viceroy Lord Irwin. Later, a pact known as the Delhi Pact or Gandhi-Irwin was signed in Delhi.

Gandhi`s motivations for reaching a pact with Lord Irwin, the viceroy, are the best to understand in his technique. The satyagraha movements are commonly referred to as “fighting,” “rebellions” and “wars without violence.” However, because of the common connotation of these remarks, they seemed to disproportionately underline the negative aspect of the movements, namely the opposition and the conflict. However, the purpose of satyagraha was not to obtain the physical elimination or moral collapse of an opponent, but to initiate a psychological process that could allow the mind and heart to meet, blowing on his hands.