The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  The Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives to be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets.  Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked. Only the processes governing reporting and verification of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly notable for the United States – in the absence of legal targets for reduction or funding, the agreement is considered an “executive agreement and not a treaty”. Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty has received Senate approval, this new agreement does not require further laws of Congress for it to enter into force.  The implementation of the Agreement by all Member States is assessed every five years, with the first evaluation taking place in 2023. The result will be used as a contribution to member States` new national contributions.  The inventory will not be one of the contributions/performance of each country, but of a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. Negotiators for the agreement said the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and noted “with concern that estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030, resulting from projected national contributions, did not fall under the least expensive 2°C scenarios, but would end at a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030.” and recognizing that “much greater efforts will be needed to reduce emissions in order to keep the global average temperature rise to less than 2°C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatons or 1.5°C”.
 [Clarification required] Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. . . .