The CAP is also affected by agricultural concessions granted to a large number of countries under several multilateral and bilateral agreements, as well as unilateral derogations granted under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP). These preferential agreements explain the high level of EU agricultural imports from developing countries (3.2.10, Table VI). National agricultural support schemes are governed by the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), which entered into force in 1995 and was negotiated during the Uruguay Round (1986-1994). The long-term objective of the AoA is to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system and to initiate a reform process by negotiating commitments on assistance and protection and establishing stronger and more operationally effective rules and disciplines. Agriculture is therefore special because the sector has a separate agreement whose provisions are given priority. As regards the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), signed in Geneva in 1947, and the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation (WTO), signed in Marrakesh in 1994 (OJ L 347, 27.7.1997, p. 1). The European Union and its Member States shall act in accordance with Article 207 (common commercial policy) and Articles 217 and 218 (international agreements) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (5.2.2). The 2003 CAP reform, which decoupled most of the existing direct aid, and the subsequent sectoral reforms resulted in the postponement of most of the aid under the yellow and blue boxes in the green box (€61.6 billion for the period 2016-2017, see table below). Noting that the commitments made under the reform agenda should be made equitably by all members, without taking into account trade policy issues, including food security and the need to protect the environment; Recalling the agreement that special and differential treatment of developing countries is an integral part of the negotiations and taking into account the potential negative effects of the implementation of the reform agenda on least developed and net food-importing developing countries, the obligation to honour specific binding commitments in each of the following areas: market access; domestic aid; export competition; and to reach agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary issues; Export subsidies are the third pillar.
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